At the conclusion of the construction project, the gravel was removed, theoretically removing oil leaks and other pollution with it. Moose along the Dalton Hwy (Alaska pipeline in background) The sun at local midnight from Prudhoe Bay, AK Icefield at the headwaters of the Klondike River in the Yukon Dalton Hwy follows the Alaska pipeline north to the Arctic Ocean Atigun Pass where the Dalton Hwy crosses the Brooks Range The frozen shore of the Arctic Ocean at Prudhoe Bay, AK  Alaska receives royalties from oil production on state land. There are 12 pumping stations enroute that reenergize the oil to keep it flowing. It runs 428 miles making it the 7th largest river in Alaska. This report was passed along to the appropriate committees of the U.S. House and Senate, which had to approve the right-of-way proposal because it asked for more land than authorized in the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 and because it would break a development freeze imposed in 1966 by former Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall.. Fewer than 11,000 were employed at the peak of 1977 work, about half of 1976's total.  In exchange for abiding by these restrictions, workers were paid extremely well and received fringe benefits. The entire area has spectacular alpine scenery. , As part of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, Alyeska was required to remove most traces of the 31 pipeline construction camps.  This document failed to sway Judge Hart, who lifted the injunction on the project on August 15, 1972.  A massive airlift was created to supply the road construction effort; more than 700 flights per day—170,000 in total—were required before the road was finished on September 29.  Alaska moved from the most heavily taxed state to the most tax-free state. A culture grew around the unique working conditions involved in constructing the pipeline, and each union that worked on the project had a different function and stereotype. Usually, a pipeline is filled with water first, and the oil pushes the water ahead of it, purging the pipeline as it goes. Kwecharak River; Kwemeluk Pass; Kwethluk River; Kwigillingok River ; Kwik River; Kwimlilthla Slough; Kwiniuk River; Alaska Guide Co. is based in Valdez, Alaska and seeks to educate people on Alaska through adventure tours and online informational resources. Its impact has included economic, physical, and social repercussions running the gamut from life in small towns to the global oil market.  Many positions were filled by high school students promoted above their experience level.  More than 78,000 vertical support members hold up the aboveground sections of pipeline, and the pipeline contains 178 valves. " Work on additional pump stations, which would not be needed until the pipeline was brought to full capacity, was not pressed forward.  The large amounts of money in the pipeline camps and a lack of entertainment caused frequent gambling games that sometimes involved tens of thousands of dollars. It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in Illinois and Texas, and also to oil tank farms and an oil pipeline distribution center in Cushing, Oklahoma.  These external inspections are only part of standard maintenance, however.  All told, 20 camps went up for sale. All trucks were driven by Teamsters, supply warehouses were run by Teamsters, and the buses that transported workers from camps to job sites were run by Teamsters. Alaska Cruises and Cruisetours - Alaska In The News ... view of the Trans Alaska Pipeline and a presentation about it's construction and operation. They average 85% full at any given time—7.8 million barrels (1,240,000 m3). Course Outline.  Pipeline flow rate has been steady from 2013 to 2018, hovering just over half a million barrels per day. These factors often led to more people being assigned to a job than there was work to do in an attempt to make up time lost to weather delays. Excavation and replacement of the anodes is required as they corrode.  To spur progress on the pipeline, he started the "Alyeska Sweepstakes," in which each of the five contractors working on the pipeline were compared to each other based on how much of their share they completed on time. Location Taken: Northern Brooks Range, AK, US. Because TAPS hoped to begin laying pipe by September 1969, substantial orders were placed for steel pipeline 48 inches (122 cm) in diameter.  On April 5, the contracts to build the road were picked. minimum throughput level than what is implied in Alyeska’s Low Flow Impact Study (LoFIS). Page 1 covers the southern end of the highway, from its beginning in Livengood to the Arctic Circle (mile 115), and also provides introductory information about the highway and this photo collection. The problem then became one of building it before the first snow started falling in October.  By January 1970, the projected cost had risen from $900 million to $2 billion. , The pipeline was built to withstand earthquakes, forest fires, and other natural disasters. , The startup process and construction as a whole came to an end on August 1, 1977 when the tanker ARCO Juneau sailed out of Valdez with the first load of oil from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. In the Fairbanks North Star Borough, for example, pipeline owners paid $9.2 million in property taxes—approximately 10 percent of all property taxes paid in the borough. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) is an oil transportation system spanning Alaska, including the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline, 11 pump stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal. Spring snowmelt flooded the river and battered the submerged portion of pipe. Magnetic sensors detect corrosion by analyzing variations in the magnetic field of the pipeline's metal. , Although the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System began pumping oil in 1977, it did not have a major immediate impact on global oil prices. Important archeological site near lake outlet. Home prices skyrocketed—a home that sold for $40,000 in 1974 was purchased for $80,000 in 1975. The Colville River is the longest river (about 428 miles long), and the largest lake, Teshekpuk Lake, southeast of Barrow, is 22 miles long and covers 315 square miles. Clip: Season 18 | 2m 53s One of the biggest challenges during the construction of the Alaska Pipeline was when workers reached Thompson Pass. Oct 19, 2020 - Alaska is like no other place in the world.  Following the Native lawsuit to halt work on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, this precedent was frequently mentioned in debate, causing pressure to resolve the situation more quickly than the 33 years it had taken for the Tlingits to be satisfied. The act was drafted, rushed through committee, and approved by the House on November 12, 1973, by a vote of 361–14–60.  This was followed by another victory for pipeline proponents when an amendment by Alaska Sen. Mike Gravel was passed by the Senate. Course Outline.  Because of the high turnover on the project, more than 70,000 people worked on at least a part of the pipeline. In the background, you can also see the Dalton Highway. One worker was killed and five others were injured in the resulting explosion, which also shut down the station until March 1978.  Prostitutes brought pimps, who then engaged in turf fights.  Bulldozers filled in the exposed trench with gravel, restoring the river's original contours. , To supervise the construction of the pipeline, Alyeska appointed two construction management contractors to oversee all the other subcontractors in the project.  That goal was ambitious, because most of the work that had been done to that point was on floodplains and flat terrain. Treeless North Slope tundra with Brooks Range in the background past Atigun Pass on the Dalton Highway. In a few instances, Teamsters were assaulted by workers from other unions. Alyeska denied the problem and said only 20–30 trucks were missing. , In 1975, the first year of pipelaying, Alyeska set a goal of completing 45 percent of the 800-mile route. But then the welders from 798 starting cooking their own lunches (against camp rules) using steaks taken from the kitchen freezers on makeshift grills whose burners were their acetylene torches. , However, this minimum flow rate is a legally contentious figure, since the taxable value of the pipeline is largely dependent on how long it will continue to be operable. ", "Trans Alaska Pipeline System: More Drilling in our Nation's Special Places Is Not Needed to Keep TAPS Running", "Is the Trans Alaska Pipeline System in Danger of Being Shut Down? , The Alaska Federation of Natives, which had been created in 1966, hired former United States Supreme Court justice Arthur Goldberg, who suggested that a settlement should include 40 million acres (160,000 km2) of land and a payment of $500 million. Small Group Guided Journeys. , The welders who worked on the pipeline itself came from Pipeliners Local 798 out of Tulsa, Oklahoma, which specialize in providing welders for large-scale pipeline projects. A popular joke on the pipeline was that the sole qualification to be an Operator was, "Must be able to sit on a sideboom at 40 below and not freeze up. As North Slope oil production declined, so did TAPS's share of U.S. production. In the background is the Worthington Glacier. As the permafrost below the pipeline warms, the ammonia absorbs the heat and rises to a radiator on top of each stanchion. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. " This argument relied upon the slow growth of plants and animals in far northern Alaska due to the harsh conditions and short growing season.  General Dynamics proposed a line of tanker submarines for travel beneath the Arctic ice cap, and another group proposed extending the Alaska Railroad to Prudhoe Bay.  In addition, subcontractors had cost-plus contracts with Alyeska for staffing, so there was no incentive to keep staffing levels low. , After ecological objections forced subterranean pipeline crossings (in order to allow caribou to cross), engineers developed a system by which the ground near the pipeline would be refrigerated by chilled brine.  A historian later called the decision "one of the most humiliating defeats" in the history of Bechtel.  Although Alaska Sen. Ted Stevens felt the statement "was not written by a proponent," it maintained the general approval for pipeline construction that was demonstrated in the draft statement. The resulting spray mixed with ambient air and was ignited by a stray spark. The proposed pipeline route segment from Isabel Pass to Thompson Pass is within the Copper River drainage system. The pipeline had been laid in a trench beneath the river in the late fall of 1975. In the 83 days from mid-January to the time the snow and ice melted in mid-April, 680 workers moved 34,000 short tons (31,000,000 kg) to the seven camps, and built five more camps and five temporary airstrips. , The series of taxes levied on oil production in Alaska has changed several times since 1977, but the overall form remains mostly the same.  The gross state product was $8 billion, and Alaskans earned $5 billion in personal income.  The pipeline has been shown capable of delivering over 2 million barrels of oil per day but nowadays usually operates at a fraction of maximum capacity. State and federal surveillance officers, working with the engineers, could give the OK to move the path of the pipeline as much as 200 feet to the right or left in order to avoid obstacles. ", In April 1977, Alyeska filed a notice that it intended to start filling the pipeline sometime between June 20 and July 1.  Section Five covered the distance from Coldfoot to Toolik pipeline camp, and Section Six went from Toolik to Prudhoe Bay. While it has been edited and updated for publica tion, it contains all the information contained in the original report. Flickr – Bureau of Land Management Alaska. More than 20 volunteers, including Alyeska employees, and heavy equipment loaded five dump truck loads of debris to the landfill or recycler. , The most common pig is the scraper pig, which removes wax that precipitates out of the oil and collects on the walls of the pipeline. ["Pipeline sabotage investigated"], Ocala Star-Banner. Seize a unique photo opportunity at the Arctic Circle BLM Wayside in front of the sign displaying N 66° 33'W 150° 48. Hart issued an injunction against the project, preventing the Interior Department from issuing a construction permit and halting the project in its tracks. is the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The state then takes a percentage of the dollar figure produced.  Because the pace of construction was much slower than in 1976, fewer workers were needed. Many natives were worried that the disruption caused by the pipeline would scare away the whales and caribou that are relied upon for food. "You drive it around for ten days so that any components that are going to fail are given time to fail. We didn't really have our organization set until July, and it wasn't working at top effectiveness until October. To test this, in 1969 Humble Oil and Refining Company sent a specially fitted oil tanker, the SS Manhattan, to test the feasibility of transporting oil via ice-breaking tankers to market. This problem was solved when pressurized nitrogen was used instead of water. Alaska Rivers Shown on the Map: Colville River, Copper River, Kubuk River, Kuskokwim River, Noatak River, Porcupine River, Susitna River, Tanana River and Yukon River. In July 2009, a pig launcher was installed at Pump Station 8, near the midpoint of the pipeline. , Surveyors and planners also had to deal with the Denali Fault, a major cause of earthquakes, and with large amounts of permafrost. The Porcupine River originates in the Ogilvie Mountains of Canada before entering Alaska.  From Pump Station 1, the average time taken by the oil to travel the entire length of the pipeline to Valdez has increased from 4.5 days to 18 days from 1988 to 2018. , Additional tasks remained still to be completed, but the pipeline could be put into operation without them. A view of the Worthington Glacier on Prince William Sound, near Valdez, Alaska. 13: White Pass Railroad Suspension Bridge. These holes were drilled and filled with a mix of water, gravel and dirt before a VSM was dropped into each hole. That deposit and subsequent ones were invested entirely in bonds, but debates quickly arose about the style of investments and what they should be used for.  By the spring and summer of 1973, these opposition groups attempted to persuade Congress to endorse a Trans-Canada oil pipeline or a railroad. The leader of Ford's team ordered 31 of the welds to be dug up and re-done.  Before Hickel could act, however, several Alaska Native and conservation groups asked a judge in Washington, D.C., to issue an injunction against the project. This idea was exploited in anti-pipeline advertising, most notably when a picture of a forklift carrying several legally shot caribou was emblazoned with the slogan, "There is more than one way to get caribou across the Alaska Pipeline". Experience pristine wilderness, magnificent wildlife, unspoiled tundra, and glacial cruises with a tour to Alaska. Under the act, Native groups would renounce their land claims in exchange for $962.5 million and 148.5 million acres (601,000 km2) in federal land. Permafrost underlies the entire region . Knight starred in one of two movies about the pipeline construction, Pipe Dreams.  On March 12, 1968, an Atlantic Richfield drilling crew hit paydirt.  Fairbanks' Second Avenue became a notorious hangout for prostitutes, and dozens of bars operated throughout town. ... Trans Alaska Pipeline in fall near Richardson Highway, Alaska.  The problems came from the area's remoteness and harsh climate. , This increase in population caused many adverse effects. The terminal itself was designed to be built with four tanker berths and space for a fifth, should it become necessary. A PIG is a scraper sent from 1 station to the next to clean the inner sides of the pipe. , In June 1969, as the SS Manhattan traveled through the Northwest Passage, TAPS formally applied to the Interior Department for a permit to build an oil pipeline across 800 miles (1,300 km) of public land—from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez. In total, the new Dalton Highway cost $185 million to build, and four companies shared that cost.  In its first two months of operation, from June 20 to August 15, 1977, seven incidents and accidents caused the pipeline to be shut down periodically.  A similar amendment was passed in the House on August 2..  Atop the gravel were prefabricated modular buildings either flown to the site or trucked across the Dalton Highway. Richardson Highway Alaska winding its way up to Thompson Pass. Mile 754-760, Alaska Pipeline Route, August 1974.  After more than 21 hours, it was restarted. Telaquana River: Lake and Peninsula: Telaquana Pass in Alaska Range, through Telaquana Lake to park boundary: 44: Impressive views of jagged peaks in Alaska Range from upper river and lake.  In general, however, little time was available for recreation because of the long hours worked by most people. Enjoy our collection of breathtaking photos from Alaska.org contributors and visitors. Here the pipeline will parallel the Richardson Highway west of the roadway on a line that will place the pipeline between the snout of the glacier and the road.  Brooks' report confirmed the observations of Thomas Simpson, an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company who first observed the seepages in 1836. The wealth generated by Prudhoe Bay and the other fields on the North Slope since 1977 is worth more than all the fish ever caught, all the furs ever trapped, all the trees chopped down; throw in all the copper, whalebone, natural gas, tin, silver, platinum, and anything else ever extracted from Alaska too. On July 13, an amendment calling for more study of the project—the Mondale-Bayh Amendment—was defeated. , A leak was discovered on January 8, 2011, in the basement of the booster pump at Pump Station 1. Syken. A-level members had the first pick of jobs, but they had to have worked at least 800 hours with the union in the previous year.  That figure does not include common carrier fatalities. , Under the latest taxation system, introduced by former governor Sarah Palin in 2007 and passed by the Alaska Legislature that year, the maximum tax rate on profits is 50 percent. Gerad Godfrey of Eagle River grew up commercial fishing in the Kodiak Island Fishery for twelve years. This was exacerbated by the fact that police officers and state troopers resigned in large groups to become pipeline security guards at wages far in excess of those available in public-sector jobs. The result was a 6,000-foot (1.83 km) long concrete box lined with 21 inches (53 cm) of Styrofoam. The appeals court said that although the impact statement followed the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act, it did not follow the Minerals Leasing Act, which allowed for a smaller pipeline right of way than was required for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System included over 800 miles (1,300 km) of oil pipeline, 12 pump stations, and a new tanker port. What a change from the good old days of panning for gold in Goldstream Valley (Fox) and living in a Gold Miner's Cabin.  On July 19, a heavy equipment accident caused a pipeline break that leaked 1,800 barrels per day (290 m3/d) of oil. The 2,290-foot (700 m) E. L. Patton Yukon River Bridge was not completed until October 1979; until then, traffic utilized a series of ferries across the river. , The pipeline also has had a human toll.  This court ruling increased ninefold the taxed property value of the pipeline. The annual sockeye salmon run of the upper Copper River averages 250,000.  Pump Stations 2 and 7 have a capacity of moving 60,000 gallons/minute (227,125 l/min), while all other stations have a capacity of 20,000 gal/min (75,708 l/min). Bidding on the subcontracting jobs opened at the end of March, and the contracts were announced on June 12, 1974. The study deals strictly with ascertainable facts and objective analyses and projections. The VSMs were laid in parallel, two at a time, and each had a semicircular rest for the pipeline segments.  The earliest bill offered $7 million, but this was flatly rejected.  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