Ability and effort are among the most prominent perceived causes of success and failure. It usually helps both motivation and achievement if a student attributes academic successes and failures to factors that are internal and controllable, such as effort or a choice to use particular learning strategies (Dweck, 2000). Attribution theory model. Attribution theory has been proposed to explain how individuals judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior. Feedback in the Attribution Theory is extremely valuable. Two theories of motivation seem to be pervasive in the field of education. Attribution theory emphasize people’s core social motive to understand each other and to have some control. It is one of the most prominent theories of motivation in the field of education research. Suppose that you get a low mark on a test and are wondering what caused the low mark. Locus of control and attribution theory. When we experience desirable and undesirable outcomes (such as success and failure) we can attribute the cause to something specific which in turn can lead to increased or decreased motivational behaviour. The basic idea is simple enough; if we feel that we can control events, we have the capacity to prevent bad things from happening. Attribution theories, sometimes termed explanatory theories or explanatory styles, are a subset of language learning beliefs that affect motivation. As you might suspect, the way that these attributions combine affects students’ academic motivations in major ways. Attribution Theory in the CLassroom By Michaela Schaller Student and Teacher Relationships Attribution Theory Attribution Theory in Academic Success Attribution theory attempts to explain how people judge others differently based on the meaning we give to each specific behavior. Attribution theory is a psychological concept about how people explain the causes of an event or behaviour. Based on Weiner (1984; 2010), it is a particular branch of motivation studies, developed in the setting of education, which examine what students believe about their success or failure in a given area. Figure 6.6.1. Attribution Theory and Motivation Paul Harvey, PhD, and Mark J. Martinko, PhD LEARNING OUTCOMES After completing this chapter, the student should be able to understand: ☛ The basic premises of attribution theory. The starting point for the theory is an outcome perceived as a success or failure and the search to determine why that outcome occurred. Central to this notion is a concept known as locus of control, developed by psychologist Julian Rotter back in the 1960s (for example, Rotter, 1966). ☛ The differences between optimistic, pessimistic, and hostile attribution styles. 4.2 Attribution Theory Attributions are perceptions about the causes of success and failure. 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attribution theory in education

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